Saturday, November 12, 2016

Maximizing Tree Growth - Health - through Root Zone Management


Imagine a world in which at least the drip zone of Tree Root Zones were managed for health/longevity and vigor.

This blog post will cover a few things you can do to maximize tree growth, survival rate, health,  production (fruit/nut), and longevity.  The following instructions should lead to the following benefits to your tree.

1. Reversing soil compaction around the tree, increasing percolation of water, porosity, bettering soil structure and water + air holding capacity which benefits ability to photosensitize and grow. 
2. Minimizing root competition from lawn which boosts growth, health, and longevity especially during the immature years of the tree. 
3. Inoculating your tree with host-specific mycorrhizae, proven to boost tree growth/health. 
4. Localizing an abundant reservoir of bio-available (plant absorbable) minerals and nutrients, while creating a biological hot zone around the tree providing natural benefits to the soil. This includes the restoration of a very biologically active O layer.



This is our current, most common state of root zone management, lawn up to the trunk...or perhaps a small mulch ring. Small in comparison to the canopy of the tree. 

Negative effects of managing tree root zones with lawn or small mulch rings + lawn.

  1. Mowers + the weight of human traffic (we're big animals!) maintains a level of compaction one does not encounter on a forest floor. That is why you can "sink" an inch or two into the topsoil of a forest floor, but in a lawn, it is more sturdy, solid, compacted. Compaction means less pore space, less pore space means the soil has a lessened ability to hold air and water, both essential to plant photosynthesis. Compacted soil can be one of the most limiting growth factors that a plant faces. Newly constructed developments, especially within the past decade or so, are notoriously compacted, but we can reverse that. Compacted soil not only has poorer pore space, but directly related to that issue, water has a more difficult time percolating, so more water runs off the surface instead of seeping into the soil.
  2. Lawn gets an early start in up taking available nitrogen and other nutrients from the soil. Because most lawns in the midwest are composed of cool season grasses, they begin growth in late march/early April in many springs, just when many of our native trees are sending sap back above ground, but well before our native trees begin to leaf out. Turfgrass then continues rampant growth throughout May and June trying to reach flowering height so it can set seed by July, we interrupt that cycle through mowing causing the turf to perpetually attempt to reach flowering height absorbing significant amounts of nutrients as long as the soil is moist enough to promote new growth. One positive thing though is, since we mow lawn, it has very short root systems, and tree roots can often monopolize moisture in the subsoil. 
  3. When we're trying to establish saplings or even large balled and burlap trees, the trees have to send roots that fight through the tight sod of lawn, inching year by year to find underground niches of available water/nutrients that either the lawn isn't using or the tree outcompetes the lawn for. This competition that lawn provides to establishing trees, is one of the main retardants of tree growth while immature. Most trees if planted correctly and sited well, eventually over come the lawn and establish their dominance, but the lawn still played a retarding role in each of those tree's establishing growth, and possibly the tree's longevity. 
  4. Lack of O layer; the O layer (Organic matter layer) within the soil profile is different from ecosystem to ecosystem. A prairie O layer is very thick and well developed unless it's a glade like prairie. O Layers of temperate forest soils are often rich of partly decomposed leaves, twigs, branches, and logs, all the while relatively shallow compared to a Prairie O layer. The O layer in a wetland or boreal forest is often very deep, as organic matter has a hard time breaking down due to too much moisture (anerobic conditions) or not enough heat and unfrozen moisture (boreal forest). The O layer of a lawn (thatch) is typically plain pitiful in comparison to the O layer of a real ecosystem. So our trees are growing without the most biologically active, and nutrient rich layer of the soil profile. We'll talk about reviving the O layer later in the blog. 

The Short Version (Recap)

The Many Effects of Compaction
Mowers + human foot traffic maintain an unnatural level of compaction, reducing pore space in the soil which reduces available soil moisture, air holding capacity, and reducing percolation all of which are retardant factors affecting of growth, health, and longevity. 
Nutrient and Resource Competition
Cool season turfgrass gets an early jump on available nutrients, and spends a lot of energy spring and early summer trying to flower causing the grass to continue to compete for available nutrients. Turfgrass roots/sod must be conquered by every tree we're trying to establish in a lawn, traditionally, (we're going to discuss a new way) therefor in the establishment years of a tree, they're forced to fight inch by inch through the already established, perennial turfgrass to create their own root zone retarding growth and vigor. Imagine putting a Zinnia in a lawn, and a Zinnia in a container, which will row faster, mature larger, and possibly even live longer?
Absent O Layer
Outside of Deserts, nearly all ecosystems have significant O layers (Organic Matter Layer) which often hold the largest reservoir of bio-avaialble nutrients and biologically activity (soil life). The O layer of lawn is a very thin layer of thatch that cannot start to compare with the value of a forest, prairie, or wetland O layer. Our trees are essentially missing a very important layer of their original soil profile. Lack of O layer also creates highs and lows in soil temperatures and lessened ability to hold moisture in the A layer (topsoil), which is not good for anyone :-(

So we need to flip all of these limiting factors, into reasons why our trees are thriving, live long, and grow vigorously. This requires biomimicry with some modification to speed up, maximize , and sustain nutrient availability + humus production. 




Instead of planting our new fruit tree, native tree, or ornamental tree in a lawn subjected to mowing, foot traffic and lacking an O Layer, we're going to give our newly planted tree a patch of forest-like soil conditions and add some deer protection, which is often lacking but completely essential in Midwestern metropolitan property open to deer browse and rubbing.



Have you ever "potted up" a young tree? This means to move it from a 1 gallon to a 5 gallon pot, or a 5 gallon to a 15 gallon pot. When this happens the tree has a chance to expand it's roots, which corresponds with an increased ability to grow above ground in stem/leaf form. When you plant a tree sapling, or 1 gallon or 5 gallon or whatever sized tree into a lawn, you're essentially potting it up, except the pot has no bottom.....or edges.....but this new pot (the lawn) has water and nutrient thirsty turfgrass.....and heavy animals called humans compacting the soil.....and the sometimes heavy machinery, mowing the thirsty grass.

So what can we do to give our new planting a easier time expanding it's root system?
Get rid of the grass. How? Smothering with cardboard if organic, herbicide by the label, if not. Organic method is better for soil biology in the short-term, at least. Tilling and Solarization with black or clear plastic damages soil biology in the short-term, at least.

We've stopped mowing, and stopped walking around the tree. We've also gotten rid of the grass within the recommended diameter circle pictured above.
Ok easy enough, so what's next?

Next we work on restoring the O layer.


We're concerned with restoring a biologically active, moisture retentive, nutrient dense O layer which doesn't significantly form within a lawn, but was part of all of our major ecosystems soil profiles excluding deserts. If you used cardboard to kill of the grass in the rootzone, remove it before adding the below recommended materials. 

If you're installing the zone in the fall, get as diverse amount of tree leaves as possible. Some tree leaves aren't very carbon dense and break down quickly like Hackberry, Silver Maple, Black Cherry, Black Locust, Black Walnut, and Honeylocust. Sugar Maple, Black Maple, Oaks, Hickories, Beech
Trees, and a few other trees produce leaves heavier in carbon, and longer lasting. Try to collect more of the latter than the carbon-lite leaves.

If you use a strong push behind or walk behind mower that can bag the shredded leaves or mulch them in place, go for a a <1" application of shredded leaves. This is a bit more than would naturally fall in one area, but since they're shredded, they shouldn't last more than 1 year which means the soil biology is releasing their nutrients through decomposition into the root zone of your new tree.

If you can't shred your leaves go for a 4-6" application of un-shredded leaves, but be sure to not pile the leaves directly around the trunk, as that can promote negative fungal activity on the bark of your tree and rot it to death. By the end of the winter the 4-6" application should look like a 2-3" matted application of tree leaves. Shredding the leaves is best for quicker release of nutrients aka decomposition. Though unshredded leaves may be better for attracting benefical insects due to the micro-habitat created within layered leaves.


If you're installing the zone in the spring, utilize straw bales going for a 4-5" layer somewhat loosely laid, perhaps 2-3" if  straw is compacted well. Straw won't have the mineral quality of tree leaves, but will provide some trace minerals, nitrogen, and carbon for humus (o layer) formation. Alternatively apply 1-2 inches of leaf compost, or 3-4 inches of regular compost throughout the root zone with 2" of straw on top.

Pictures to the right: Fill the Root zone with fall leaves from as many different species as possible. Then mow all of the leaves up in place or bag them with a mower and spread the shredded leaf matter throughout the zone. Your finished product should have turned the leaves into not much visually, rest assured, there is an abundance of nutrients ready to be released from those leaves.

Maximizing Available Nitrogen + Other Nutrients within the No Mow Zone


The tree leaves or straw will be providing a broad spectrum of minerals as they decompose over the course of 8-12 months after applying. Again, shredding is best, though it is more difficult to shred straw without an actual leaf shredder. These materials are high in carbon and many minerals, promoting the formation of the O Layer (partly decomposed organic matter). These materials are not very dense in nitrogen though, and to make sure your tree has an abundance of this key nutrient available, the rootzone will need some nitrogen rich materials added throughout the growing season (Late March-September).

Nitrogen rich growing season supplements

1. Turfgrass clipping harvests
Between the months of April-September, you can increase available nitrogen in the root zone, along with other trace minerals by applying 1-3" inch layers of lawn clippings over the decaying tree leaves or straw. These clippings should breakdown significantly ever 10-30 days based on temperature and moisture availability for decomposition. These applications of turfgrass clippings are really just moving nutrients from one part of your yard to another, concentrating them in the current or future root zone of your establishing tree. I recommend doing the turfgrass harvests + either option 2, 3, 4 or 5.

2. Fish emulsions
You can apply highly bioavailable fertilizer into the root zone in the form of fish emulsions. I personally plan on creating my own with invasive carp locally caught from our watersheds; directions here. If you're not into that, you can buy your own, but it's not the affordable fertilizer.  Pour through the O Layer, within a few feet of the tree in different spots, but not directly on the trunk or leaves. Fish emulsion can be the most potent and immediately bio-available of all the listed fertilizer options.

3. Organic fertilizers
You can apply by the label, organic fertilizers that likely have less adverse effects on the soil biology compared with synthetic fertilizers which are often in the form a of salt acting as an irritant to soil life.

4. Diluted Urine
Human urine, just like livestock urine, contains an abundance of nitrogen. This is by far cheaper and easier than option 2, 3, or 5 when it comes to adding an abundance of available nitrogen to your tree's root zone. The challenge is that many people in the United States take medications of different sorts that are primarily discharged from the body through urine, and those medications can bio-accummilate in the soil as potential toxins or negatives for the soil biology. So this is not a good option people using medications. These are some of the most clear directions I've found on how to process human urine for fertilizer use. Scroll halfway down the page and read the text under "Using pee: A how to guide". :-)

5. Manure 
Manure is a fairly rich source of nitrogen. When applying manure to the root zone, it is important that you get the manure in contact with the soil, as opposed to sitting on top of your leaf/straw layer. This will help the soil biology start cycling the nutrients from the manure to the plant much more quiclky and prevent the manure from drying out. Use manure applications in Late March- Early April before your tree starts it's next growth spurt. The second best time to apply the manure would be in September before your next layer of shredded of leaves would be added. The only true downside to manure applications each year, multiple times a year, is it can build up different forms of salts in the soil if they aren't leaching quick enough. I'm not sure how significant of a issue that could be, or how likely it is to happen. Try 2-3" of Manure applications, twice a year (March and September) and see how the tree responds.

The importance of adding nitrogen supplementation

Due to the abnormal amount of Carbon (straw or tree leaves) concentrated in the root zone,  atleast one of these options should be pursued to balance out the carbon : nitrogen ratio and aid decomposition of the straw or tree leaves. Recommended by the writer, is harvesting and applying turfgrass clippings throughout the spring and summer months + any one of the other 4 options. The bit of carbon within the turfgrass also will help build the O Layer.

Reminder: Don't let the developing O layer come within 6 inches of the trunk of the tree. And don't let the organic matter stay above 3" thick for very long, unless you're overwintering un-shredded leaves or loosely laid straw. Too much undecomposed organic matter will reduce available nitrogen, requiring more inputs from the above 5 listed recommended nitrogen sources.



Soil Inoculation with Host Specific Mycorrhizae

Copy-Pasted from this article. "Infection of tree seedling roots with certain types of soil fungi can increase seedling growth as much as 400 percent. In fact, some tree species must have fungi on their root systems to develop "normally." These types of fungi are called mycorrhizal fungi and are credited with improving a seedling's ability to withstand extremely droughty soil conditions and low soil nutrient levels. In fact, hardwoods and conifers which have mycorrhizal fungi on their roof systems survive and grow under soil moisture conditions where non-mycorrhizal seedlings die. Research on several hardwood seedling species indicates that mycorrhizal seedlings are capable of growing as large as non-mycorrhizal seedlings but at one-half the level of soil nutrients." - Purdue University Extension. 

Inoculated on the left, non-Inocculated on the right.

Trees as well as over 80% of all plants develop specific relationships with these fungal networks which you can read about more in the above linked article. 

When: If planting in the fall try inoculating at the time of planting pouring the inoculation directly into the pot or on the rootball, and try again following spring month after the buds break to ensure successful "infection" of the root system. If you're planting in the spring, inoculate while the tree is still in it's pot, then plant the tree. Follow up again in November.

How: This is simple if your tree is native. Find a wild growing specimen of your tree, or a +30 year old specimen. One can safely assume that the wild growing specimen has already established beneficial mycorrhizal networks. A lawn planted specimen with + 20 or 30 years growth may or may not have developed host-specific mycorrihzal networks, but it's a good second second option if you can't locate the tree in the wild. 

Take 4-5" soil probe's worth sample of the soil inside the drip line. If you don't have a soil probe, take about two tablespoons of soil from the top 4-5" of soil. Remember you'll be doing this twice, once in the late fall (November), and once in the spring (April) to maximize chance of inoculation. 

Blend (in a blender) the soil sample into 8 cups of water, and then water your target plants with that soiled-water blend. It's easier to water the tree with the soil sample while it's still in the pot before planting, but it still can be done with some accuracy after planting. And again, you'll repeat this in either the spring or fall depending on when you planted the tree. 


Don't buy Mycorrhizal products from online. Most native trees will be host-specific, and it isn't very likely the general blends of mycorrhizae they have available online will have the specific fungal species that have the evolutionary relationship established with your tree species. 



After the first growing season

The rootzone of your tree should be developing humus (mostly decomposed organic matter). It should also be inhabited by beetles, ants, spiders, and many other insects moving throughout the O layer. You can add a log or two into the root zone which may attract beneficial insects. As long as it's not buried, it wont' significantly affect your Carbon : Nitrogen ratio balance, though it should be colonized by the fungal community over time which may be connected with your establishing tree exchanging nutrients and biochemicals. If you're limiting your walking in the zone, you should also feel the soil softening/aerating after the first growing season, perhaps you can push your finger into the soil a bit, or a lot, if you're so lucky to have a burrowing animal tunneling through your root zone! All of this soil life, burrowing/tunneling activity, and insect activity are positives for our key goals: nutrient availability, reversal of compaction, moisture retention ability of the soil profile, humus formation, and water percolation.

Supplemental Watering

Throughout the summer months (May-August), if you're local area is falling behind on average rainfall, give the whole rootzone 1.5" of water, twice a month. You can measure that setting up a sprinkler, and placing an open evenly shaped container in the zone watching to see how quickly it is reaching 1.5" of water in the container. Tuna cans work great for that. 

By the end of your first summer, your root zone should not have an O layer thicker than 2". Also un-decomposed organic matter, again, should not be pilled up or in direct contact with the trunk. It would be best to add only shredded leaves each fall, this will ensure quicker breakdown of the leaves, preventing the O Layer from being "too thick" and carbon dense. How thick is too thick? I'm not sure. But the objective isn't to create a compost pile around your tree. Revisit the soil profile picture above. 2" is probably the thickest you want the O layer,  after the first summer has passed.  This recommendation may change as my own experiments mature or as I receive feedback from others' trials.

After 7-10 years (Growing seasons)

Unless you're managing the trees for food production, there's really no need to keep cycling and concentrating nutrients around your tree after the first 7-10 years in the ground. By this time, most trees will have not only dominated the root zone you've provided, but expanded beyond the protected root zone area. 

Keep the root zone protection in place to protect the drip line, and instead of adding tons of carbon and nitrogen rich organic matter, simply add enough tree leaves in the fall to maintain a 2-3" thick O layer. There's also no need to shred the leaves at this point, they can decay at natural rates, gradually becoming available to your very well established tree. 

At this point you can also expand the root zone, to give you're maturing tree more biologically active, non-compacted soil, if you can afford to loose more lawn, the tree will be most appreciative. 


Ornamentalizing the Root Zone


Above is the wild native sunflower, that was cultivated into the plants that occupy the sunflower fields we know and love. When you grow the wild uncultivated Helianthus annus - Annual sunflower, they bloom with more heads per plant, and smaller heads with brownish centers. Using weakly rooted perennials and native annuals may enhance the soil biology within the Root zone, through the addition of plant diversity. Using only native plants maximizes diversity in fungal, bacterial, and insect interactions with the plant through evolution-based established relationships. Once again, bio-mimicry is almost always the best solution because nature is perfect like that.

Here is a list of native plants that can ornamentalize the root zone area while adding some valuable plant diversity-enhancing the soil biology, without strongly competing with the tree roots. Try to keep 40-50% of the rootzone free of plants, for the tree to quickly (without competition) establish it's root dominance. This also means no rhizomatous plants like mistflower or obedient plant, which can quickly occupy the whole root zone within a few seasons through running rhizomes.

Non Root Competitive Non-Rhizomatous Native Perennials for the root zone

May-June Bloomers
Wild Geranium
Hairy Wood Mint 
Sand Coreopsis
Foxglove Beardtongue

June-July Bloomers
Butteflyweed
Long-headed Coneflower
Nodding Onion
Purple Coneflower
Wild Bergamot - Limited
Mountain Mint-Limited
Early Sunflower-Limited
Marsh Blazing Star-Liable to flop

August-September Bloomers
Cardinal Flower
Great Blue Lobelia
Gentian species
Meadow Phlox

September-October
Dwarf Goldenrod
Frost Aster
Aromatic Aster - Limited
New england Aster-Limited

Grasses-Native Ryes
Native Sedges-limited

The plants noted with "limited" can be root competitive with the tree if they are allowed to take over the root zone, or if planted too densely. 

If you're going to use annuals, stick to native annuals, or annuals native to this continent. They tend to be used heavily by local pollinators when at least native to the continent. 

Native Annuals (At least native to this continent) 

Helianthus annus (Wild Type)- search for Wild Helianthus annus on google to find smaller flowred “origninal” uncultivated sunflower with black or brownish centers on 4-5” wide flowers. These will have non-competitive root systems. Wont’ bloom until August.

Partridge pea germinated in Late April in a small pot will be ready to plant my Late May, and will flower in August. Fixes nitrogen, and since it is an annual it releases that nitrogen upon dying each year. Should reseed each year, depending on how thick the O Layer is. 

Rudbeckia hirta-germinated in april in a small pot again will be ready to plant by late may, flowering in June-July, a reseeding it self each year afterwards depending how thick O layer is.

Bidens aristosa will get 4-5 feet tall, so must be stragetically placed, and won’t be bloom until September, but will with an outstanding show of larger yellow blooms.

Zinnas- Because Zinnias are native to central america, southwest America, the least manipulated flowers attract a lot of native pollinators. Look for Zinnia varieties that are not “double” and “tripple” flowered/petaled, pollinators find thickly "petaled" flowers confusing. Chose Orange or Yellow or White over Red and Maroon which are not colors that attracts most pollinators.

Salvia farinacea- cultivars such as Victoria blue are good selections. Bees love these plants, which are native to southern United States as perennials and into Mexico.

Cleome serrulata- most cultivars of Cleome are really popular with bees, this is another annual native to the united states, that pollinators agree with, at least in the midwest. 

Agastache foeniculum-there are a few cultivars of this native annual as well, that remain favorites among pollinators, likely due to the plant's origin within the united states. 




If you decide to help your tree breathe easy, and grow vigorously using these Root Zone Management techniques please email Pioneerlandscapesllc@gmail.com so we can exchange information and hopefully exchange success stories/pictures.